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专升本语法:由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句

发布日期:2018/02/05 09:32:43来源:专升本社区阅读量:1097

1. 由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句主要用于正式文体,在非正式文体中通常将介词放至句末。如:This is the man to whom I referred. 我指的就是这个人。This is the man (whom) I referred to. 我指的就是这个人。

2. 直接用于介词后作宾语的关系代词which不能换成that,直接用于介词后作宾语的关系代词whom不能换成who。但若介词用于句末,则用作宾语的which, whom也可换成that, who,或者省略不同。如:这是一个我们讨论了许多的问题。This is a subject about which we have talked a lot.(which不能换成that,也不能省略)This is a subject which we have talked about a lot. 这是一个我们讨论了许多的问题。(which可以换成that,也可以省略)

3. 关系副词when, where, why根据情况有时可换成“介词+关系代词which”。如: That is the day when [=on which] he was born. 那就是他出生的日子。That is the house where [=in which] he lived. 那就是他住过的房子。That is the reason why [=for which] he must apologize. 那就是他必须道歉的原因。

4. 在很正式的文体中,“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句可紧缩成“介词+关系代词+不定式”结构。如:在那儿孩子们有个玩耍的花园。正:There the children had a garden in which to play. (很正式)正:There the children had a garden in which they could play. (较正式)正:There the children had a garden to play in. (较口语化)注:这类“介词+关系代词++不定式”结构中的介词不能没有,也不能放在句末。如不能说There the children had a garden which to play in.