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干货知识:普通专升本英语语法之动词不定式

发布日期:2018/02/06 16:14:45来源:专升本社区阅读量:2889

    动词不定式
    1.常用形式:一般主动式to do, 一般被动式to be done
    完成主动式to have done, 完成被动式to have been done
    进行式to be doing
    2.语法功能:可作主语、表语、宾语、宾补、定语和状语(即除谓语之外的各种成分)。例如:
  (1)主语:To master a foreign language is very important.
  (2)表语:My job is to drive them to the company every day.
  (3)宾语:Do you want to visit the Great Wall?
    Can you give us some advice on what to do next?
  (4) 宾补:The teacher advised us to have a rest first.
    I didn’t notice them come in.

    注:see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let等动词后作宾补的动词不定式不带to, 但变为被动语态以后(即不定式作主补时)要带to, 其中let sb. do sth. 变为被动式为sb. is let do sth.
    help(帮助)后作宾补的动词不定式可带to,也可不带to. 即help sb.(to)do sth.
  (5) 定语:不定式位于所修饰的名词,代词之后,如:Who was the first one to set to the top of the hill yesterday? /He is the man to depend on/to believe in.
  (6)状语: in order to
    A.目的状语:She reads China Daily every day so as to improve her English.
    注:in order to 可以位于句首或句中,so as to 不能位于句首。
    B.原因状语: I’m glad to see you . 注:这种“be+形容词+不定式”结构,其不定式有时也可视为宾语,如:He is eager to go to college./ She is sure to come here.
    C.结果状语:They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们一直活到见到家乡解放。
    在“too…to…”结构中表“太…结果不能”,如:He is too weak to do the work.
    注:too之前如果有only, only too 表“非常”、“很”意,此时不定式不再表否定意,而表肯定意。如:They are only too lucky to go abroad for a visit. 他们很幸运去国外访问。
    另外,too后如果是happy, glad之类形容词时,不定式也表肯定意。
    如:She was too happy to meet her old friend in the street.
    在“形容词/副词+enough+不定式”结构中表“足以能…”,如:He is strong enough to do the work .
    3.复合结构不定式(for sb. to do sth.),可作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。for 本身无意义,sb.可称之为不定式的逻辑主语。例如:I think it necessary for him to go there at once.(复合结构不定式作宾语)。
    注:当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时,不用for, 而用of,
    如:It is kind of you to help me .(相当于You are kind to help me .)这类形容词有good,nice,kind,wise, clever, foolish, silly, stupid, careless, impolite(不礼貌)等。right, wrong既可用于for sb. to do sth. 也可用于of sb. to do sth. 例如:It’s right/wrongg for him to do the work alone.
    4.疑问词+不定式:可作主语、表语或宾语。如:How to finish the work in time is a problem.(主语)We don’t know when and where to go .(宾语)
    5.动词不定式的否定式(not to do sth.),语法功能同不定式肯定式。